Sources for the Sleep and Memory Series

Ackermann, and B. Rasch. “Differential Effects of Non-REM and REM Sleep on Memory Consolidation?” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, vol. 14, 7 Jan. 2014. SpringerLink, doi: 10.1007/s11910-013-0430-8.

Dijk, Derk-Jan. “Sleep and health: beyond sleep duration and sleepiness?” Journal of Sleep Research, vol. 21, no. 4, Aug 2012, pp. 355-356. Wiley Online Library, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2869.2012.01036.x

Ellenbogen, Hulbert, Stickgold, Dinges, and S. Thompson-Schill. “Interfering with Theories of Sleep and Memory: Sleep, Declarative Memory, and Associative Interference.” Current Biology, vol. 16, no. 13, 11 July 2006, pp. 1290-1294. ScienceDirect, doi :

Foulkes and W. Domhoff. “Bottom-up or Top-down in Dream Neuroscience? A Top-down Critique of Two Bottom-up Studies.” Consciousness and Cognition, vol. 27, July 2014, pp. 168-171. ScienceDirect, doi:

Hornung, Regen, Danker-Hopfe, Schredi, and I. Heuser. “The Relationship Between REM Sleep and Memory Consolidation in Old Age and Effects of Cholinergic Medication.” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 61, no. 6, Mar. 2006, pp. 750-757. ScienceDirect, doi:

Image sources in image captions.

LeDoux, Joseph. The Emotional Brain: The Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional Life. Touchstone Books, published by Simon and Schuster, New York, 1998. pp. 59-60.
Li, Ma, Yang, and W. B. Gan. “REM sleep selectively prunes and maintains new synapses in development and learning.” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 20, Jan. 2017, pp. 427-437. doi: 10.1038/nn.4479.

Rasch and J. Born. “In Search of a Role of REM Sleep in Memory Formation.” Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, vol. 122, July 2015, pp. 1-3. ScienceDirect, doi,

Shaw, Bryony. “Developments in the Neuroscience of Dreams.” Activitas Nervosa Superior, vol. 58, no. 1, 2016, pp. 45-50. ProQuest, doi:  10.1007/BF03379951.

Spoormaker, Czisch, and F. Holsboer. “REM Sleep, Hippocampus, and Memory Processing: Insights from Functional Neuroimaging Studies.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences, vol. 36, no. 6, Dec. 2013, pp. 629-630. ProQuest, doi:

“Stages of Human Sleep.” National Sleep Foundation,

Titone, Debra. “Memories Bound: The Neuroscience of Dreams.” Trends in Cognitive Sciences, vol. 6, no. 1, Jan. 2002, pp. 4-5. ScienceDirect, doi:

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